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Rugged Notebook Computers

When a wimpy plastic clamshell notebook just won't do
(by Conrad H. Blickenstorfer)

Notebooks have evolved into sleek, powerful computers that can do most of what a conventional desktop PC can do. And more and more people replace their bulky desktop PCs with notebook computers that they can take home, on trips, or on field assignments. Problem is that consumer notebooks with their large, unprotected screens and plastic cases are quite fragile. Studies show that notebook failures represent an increasing cost factor in many corporations. And an increasing source of frustration.

Fortunately, there are manufacturers who make notebooks that are built specifically for tough jobs. Some make notebooks that are designed and engineered to withstand much more punishment than a standard consumer product. Others include special features and peripherals needed for specific jobs. Some notebooks, finally, are built like tanks and are nearly unbreakable.

Most (but not all) of these rugged and semi-rugged notebooks cost significantly more than their consumer market counterparts. That's because they are more expensive to build (and also because the market for them is not very large).

As always, when contemplating the purchase of such a product, you must to determine your requirements first, or else you'll pay for something you don't need.

To help you, this section contains a number of the best ruggedized notebooks out there. For years, most used standard versions of the Microsoft Windows XP operating system, but now most are running Windows 7 or Windows 8. Almost all can take a beating. And most have performance and features comparable to those of a consumer notebook. Security is becoming an ever greater concern, and so a lot of semi-rugged and rugged machines now have fingerprint scanners, SmartCard readers, and removable hard drives.

Please note that some of these products are designed and made by an OEM (such as Twinhead) and then sold by a variety of vendors under their own brands.

Whenever available, we added sealing ratings, operating temperature range, and shock resistance data to the specification boxes. That gives you an idea of how tough and rugged a device is, and what sort of working environment you can safely use it in.

One peculiarity of the rugged notebook market is that, for reasons of continuity and backward compatibility with add-ons and peripherals, designs often stay the same for several years. That is in stark contrast to consumer notebooks that change every few months. As a result, rugged equipment manufacturers usually update the technology inside and leave the outside alone. Market leaders like Getac, Dell, DURABOOK or Panasonic are usually very quick in upgrading to the latest processor technology; smaller and more specialized manufacturers at times lag a chip generation or two behind, with no serious impact on their products to do the job.

Outdoor readable displays

Ruggedness and the need for an outdoor-readable display go hand-in-hand. If you're going to use a notebook outside, you're probably going to use it on car hoods, fallen logs, the ground, rocks, benches, concrete structures and in other difficult locations. So let's discuss display technologies a bit.

As is, most standard notebooks have transmissive LCDs. Those are very bright indoors due to the fact that their backlights strongly and evenly illuminate the screen. Outdoors, however, transmissive displays, unless they are specially treated, wash out and become unreadable.

Some LCD displays are reflective, which means they reflect the ambient light and thus are readable outdoors. Some early Pocket PCs had purely reflective LCDs and there were some notebooks that used reflective displays also. The problem with purely reflective displays is that while outdoor viewability is good, indoors they are unpleasant to use because they need sidelights to illuminate them.

LCD manufacturers also tried a compromise between transmissive and reflective technologies. Those displays were called "transflective." They reflected some light, but also let some through. That way a backlight could be used to illuminate the display indoors, while a degree of reflectivity made for acceptable viewing outdoors. The problem was, as with any compromise, that transflective displays weren't as good as transmissive ones indoors, and not as good as reflective ones outdoors.

Today, most manufacturers use specially treated transmissive displays. The idea is to provide high enough contrast to make the displays readable outdoors. The contrast ratio that matters for viewability is that between the backlight and the reflected daylight. The most outdoor-readable displays today use a combination of fairly strong backlight and anti-reflective coatings to provide contrast. Some add special anti-glare surface treatment for a more pleasant viewing experience.

As more customers demand acceptable outdoor viewability, manufacturers are scrambling to provide the best possible solutions. Some of the technologies require considerable manufacturing expertise and add extra cost. Over the years we found examples of remarkable advances in outdoor viewability in products and technologies such as the Dell ATG 630, Panasonic's CircuLumin, Getac's QuadraClear, or MobileDemand's xView technology. Most of these progressively refined technologies rely on applying special polarizers and anti-reflective coatings to standard transmissive displays with strong backlights.


Unfortunately, the term "rugged" is somewhat relative. Manufacturers describe their notebook products as ultra-rugged, rugged, semi-rugged, business-rugged, vehicle-rugged or durable, but there are no hard definitions as to what all that means.

Most manufacturers do supply ruggedness specifications that help figuring out how much abuse a product can take without breaking. A notebook, for example, should not break if it falls off a desk, which generally means from a height of perhaps 2-1/2 feet in open position. However, if the notebook is also used while walking around on the job, then perhaps it should be able to survive a four foot fall or better.

As far as operating temperature goes, the notebook should be able to start up and reliably run in whatever temperatures it is expected to operate. If that's in a desert climate, then it should be able to handle 120 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. If it's in a commercial freezer or an arctic setting, then it must function in those low temperatures. Also important is the ability to maintain peak performance over the entire operating temperature range.

Vibration can be a big issue for vehicle-mounted laptops, so testing must be conducted to ascertain that the product will survive on the job. Likewise for exposure to unusual humidity, altitude, salt fog, or whatever else the notebook may encounter while on the job.

There are many different testing standards, and tests can be conducted inhouse or by dedicated independent party testing labs. An often used standard is the MIL-STD-810G created by the United States Department of Defense. It is a very comprehensive document discussing environmental engineering consideration and laboratory testing standards.

Note, however, that the MIL-STD-810G does not mandate standards or set minimum goals for the various tests; for the most part it simply describes how testing is to be conducted. This leaves considerable room for interpretation, and it is therefore important for manufacturers of rugged notebooks to provide detailed information on what tests were conducted, how exactly they were conducted, what the results were, and what those results actually mean. The claim that a product is "MIL-STD-810G tested" is not enough, and prospective customers should ask for more detail.

--Conrad H. Blickenstorfer, Ph.D.

Rugged Notebook Reviews
  • ACME Comrade 700
  • ACME Seahawk 100
  • ACME Tenuis 100 Plus
  • Amrel Rocky RT9 (13.3")
  • Amrel Rocky RS11 (13.3")
  • Amrel Rocky RK10 (15.0")
  • Amrel Rocky RF10 (17.3")
  • Dell Latitude E6430 ATG
  • Dell Latitude 12 Rugged Extreme
  • Dell New Latitude 12 Rugged Extreme
  • Dell Latitude 14 Rugged
  • Dell Latitude 14 Rugged Extreme
  • Dell Newe Latitude 14 Rugged Extreme
  • DRS Scorpion RBM
  • Fujitsu LifeBook T5010
  • GammaTech DURABOOK U12Ci
  • GammaTech DURABOOK D14RM
  • GammaTech DURABOOK R13S
  • GammaTech DURABOOK R8300
  • GammaTech DURABOOK SA14
  • GammaTech DURABOOK S15H
  • GammaTech DURABOOK S15AB
  • Getac B300 (full)
  • Getac S410 (full)
  • Getac S410 G2
  • Getac V110 (full)
  • Getac X500 (full)
  • Getac X500 2014
  • Handheld Algiz XRW
  • Handheld Algiz XRW (2013)
  • Handheld Algiz XRW (full)
  • HP Elitebook 2760p
  • Lenovo ThinkPad X230t
  • MobileDemand C1200
  • MobileDemand C1300
  • Motorola MW 810 R2.0
  • Panasonic Toughbook 19K
  • Panasonic Toughbook 20
  • Panasonic Toughbook 31
  • Panasonic Toughbook 33
  • Panasonic Toughbook C2
  • Panasonic Toughbook 53
  • Panasonic Toughbook 54 G2
  • Panasonic Toughbook 54 G3
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-XZ6
  • Rugged Notebooks Eagle
  • Samwell RUGGEDBOOK SR858
  • Stealth StealthBOX Warrior
  • Tadpole Topaz (full)
  • Talla-Tech Tacter-31M
  • Toshiba Portege M750
  • Toshiba Portege M780
  • Toshiba Portege R500 (full)
  • VT Miltope TSC-750M
  • VT Miltope RLC-3G
  • Notebook Technologies
  • Outdoor Viewable Displays 2013
  • Common Access Card 2013
  • Thermal Stress 2012
  • Pixel Qi Screens 2011
  • Mobile Imaging 2011
  • Intel i3/i5/i7 2010
  • Outdoor-Readable Screens 2007
  • DynaVue Display Technology
  • Outdoor-Readable TPCs 2006
  • Outdoor color LCDs
  • Battery technologies
  • Bluetooth primer
  • Replaced/discontinued
  • Amrel Rocky Unlimited
  • Amrel Rocky RT7/RK7
  • Amrel Rocky RT8-M/RT8-I
  • Amrel Rocky RK8-M/RK8-I
  • Amrel Rocky RK9-M/RK9-I
  • Amrel Rocky RF8-M/RF8-I
  • Amrel Rocky RF9-M/RF9-I
  • Azonix FW8600
  • Azonix NotePAC
  • Azonix MilPAC Plus
  • Augmentix XTG630
  • Averatec Voya 4400 Series
  • Averatec Voya 6400 Series
  • Dell Latitude 14 Rugged (1st gen)
  • Dell Latitude XT
  • Dell Latitude XT2
  • Dell Latitude XT2 XFR
  • Dell Latitude ATG 620
  • Dell Latitude E6420 ATG
  • Dell Latitude ATG 630 (full)
  • Dell Latitude XFR D630
  • Dell Latitude E6400 XFR
  • Dell Latitude E6420 XFR
  • Dolch FieldPAC
  • Fujitsu LifeBook U810
  • Fujitsu LifeBook U820
  • Fujitsu LifeBook UH900
  • Fujitsu LifeBook P1610
  • Fujitsu LifeBook P1620
  • Fujitsu LifeBook P1630
  • Fujitsu Lifebook T580
  • Fujitsu LifeBook T1010
  • Fujitsu LifeBook T2010
  • Fujitsu LifeBook T4220
  • Fujitsu LifeBook T4410
  • Fujitsu B6210
  • Fujitsu B6220
  • GammaTech DURABOOK SA14 2011
  • Gateway C-141
  • Gateway C-143
  • Getac 9213
  • Getac A770
  • Getac A790
  • Getac P470 (full)
  • Getac B300 (original)
  • Getac B300 (2011)
  • Getac B300 (2013)
  • Getac B300 (2016)
  • Getac M220
  • Getac M230
  • Getac S400
  • Getac V100 (original)
  • Getac V100 (full)
  • Getac V200 (capsule)
  • Getac V200 (full)
  • Getac W130
  • GD-Itronix GD4000
  • GD-Itronix GD6000 (full)
  • GD-Itronix GD8000 (full)
  • GD-Itronix GD8200 (capsule)
  • GD-Itronix GD8200 (full)
  • Itronix GoBook VR1
  • GD-Itronix GoBook VR2
  • Itronix HUMMER Laptop
  • Itronix GoBook III
  • GD-Itronix GoBook XR1
  • GD-Itronix GoBook MR1 (full)
  • GD-Itronix Tadpole Topaz (full)
  • GD-Itronix Tadpole M1000 (full)
  • GD-Itronix Tadpole M1500 (full)
  • GD-Itronix Duo-Touch (full)
  • HP Elitebook 2730p
  • HP Elitebook 2740p
  • Kontron ReVolution
  • Lenovo ThinkPad X61
  • Lenovo ThinkPad X200t
  • Lenovo ThinkPad X220t
  • Microslate MSL-3000
  • Motorola MW 810
  • Motorola ML 900
  • Motorola ML 910
  • PacStar 3500
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-18
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-19C
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-29
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-30K
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-30 2008
  • Panasonic Toughbook 51
  • Panasonic Toughbook 52
  • Panasonic Toughbook 54
  • Panasonic Toughbook 54 G2
  • Panasonic Toughbook C1
  • Panasonic Toughbook F8/9
  • Panasonic Toughbook S10
  • Panasonic Toughbook SX2
  • Panasonic Toughbook T2
  • Panasonic Toughbook T4
  • Panasonic Toughbook T5
  • Panasonic Toughbook T8
  • Panasonic Toughbook W2
  • Panasonic Toughbook W4
  • Panasonic Toughbook W5
  • Panasonic Toughbook W7
  • Panasonic Toughbook W8
  • Panasonic Toughbook Y2
  • Panasonic Toughbook Y4
  • Panasonic Toughbook Y5
  • Panasonic Toughbook Y7
  • Panasonic Toughbook 73
  • Panasonic Toughbook 74
  • Toshiba Portege M200
  • Toshiba Portege M205
  • Toshiba Portege M400
  • Toshiba Portege R400
  • Toshiba Tecra M4
  • Toshiba Tecra M7
  • Twinhead U12C
  • Twinhead N1400
  • Twinhead N14RA (full)
  • Twinhead D13RI
  • Twinhead D14RI
  • Twinhead D14RM
  • Twinhead N15RN (full)
  • GammaTech DURABOOK S15C
  • Wyse X90L/X90Le
  • Notebook Case Studies
  • The Panasonic Toughbook story
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